B. Prinsip Dasar Biosekuriti

Manajemen kesehatan ternak dapat diartikan sebagai proses perencanaan,  pengorganisasian, kepemimpinan dan engendalian faktor-faktor produksi melalui  optimalisasi sumberdaya yang dimilikinya agar produktivitas ternak dapat  dimaksimalkan, kesehatan ternak dapat dioptimalkan dan kesehatan produk hasil ternak memiliki kualitas kesehatan sesuai dengan standar yang diinginkan. Manajemen kesehatan ternak harus melalui suatu proses yaitu suatu cara yang sistematis untuk menjalankan suatu pekerjaan. Untuk suatu kegiatan-kegiatan tertentu proses-proses
kegiatan harus berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip efisiensi produksi dan ekonomis serta penggunaan semua sarana dan prasarana secara efektif dengan kaidah-kaidah yang lazim berlaku dalam kesehatan dan kesejahteraan ternak. Untuk mencapai tujuan yang diinginkan tersebut di atas diperlukan sifat interaktif dari proses manajemen .

Banyak sekali jenis pangan yang diperdagangkan kurang memenuhi syarat minimum kesehatan, misalnya karena tercemar mikroorganisme, penggunaan bahan tambahan pangan dan bahan kimia non pangan. Kendala utama kenapa pelaku tata niaga kita belum dapat mengadopsi teknologi dalam sistem keamanan pangan adalah belum dikembangkan dan dipahaminya “manajemen risiko” dalam sistem keamanan pangan oleh kalangan usahawan kita. Untuk meningkatkan kinerja manajemen resiko memerlukan skill (keterampilan), pendidikan dan pelatihan serta komitmen yang kuat akan produk yang dihasilkannya.

Manajemen risiko tidak harus dilakukan oleh industri peternakan atau usaha peternakan yang besar-besar saja. Pengalaman empiris menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi manajemen resiko yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan kecil mampu meningkatkan pendapatan karena pada umumnya konsumen sangat komitmen terhadap produk yang sehat. Keamanan pangan secara umum, merupakan hal yang kompleks dan sekaligus merupakan dampak dari interaksi antara toksisitas mikrobiologik, kimiawi, status gizi dan ketenteraman batin. Untuk pemenuhan bahan pangan hewani asal ternak khususnya daging disamping pemenuhan secara kuantitatif diperlukan juga pemenuhan syarat-syarat kualitatif (aspek nilai gizi), syarat-syarat higiene (aspek kesehatan), syarat-syarat dan keadaan yang menjamin ketenteraman bathin masyarakat yang menggunakan (aspek kehalalan).

Manajemen kesehatan ternak tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan masalah biosekuriti. Keduanya merupakan bagian integral dari si8stem keamanan pangan produk peternakan. Biosekuriti merupakan konsep integral yang mempengaruhi suksesnya system produksi ternak khususnya dalam mengurangi resiko dan konsekuensi masuknya penyakit menular dan tidak menular. Jika kegiatan biosekuriti dilaksanakan secara baik dan benar maka produktivuitas ternak, efisiensi ekonomi dan produksi akan tercapai. Sebagai bagian dari sistem manajemen maka biosekuriti sangat penting khususnya untuk mencegah penyakit. Semua komponen biosekuriti, system yang diterapkan (vaksinasi, pengobatan, kontrol hewan liar dan lain-lainnya) dan sarana serta prasarana yang ada memiliki arti tinggi terhadap keberhasilan program sekuriti.

Pada umumnya biosekuriti dibagi dalam tiga tingkatan yaitu (a) biosekuriti konseptual, yang merupakan dasar atau basis dari seluruh program pengendalian penyakit. Beberapa hal yang harus dikelola antara lain pemilihan lokasi peternakan khususnya kandang, pengaturan jenis dan umur ternak, (b) biosekuriti struktural, yaitu hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan tata letak peternakan, pemisahan batas-batas unit peternakan, pengaturan saluran limbah peternakan, perangkat sanitasi dan dekontaminasi, instalasi tempat penyimpanan pakan dan gudang, serta peralatan kandang dan (c) biosekuriti operasional, merupakan implementasi prosedur manajemen untuk pengendalian penyakit
di perusahaan terutama bagaimana mengatasi suatu infeksi panyakit menular. Aspek-aspek yang sangat perlu diperhatikan dan menjadi tujuan pelaksanaan program  biosekuriti adalah (a) tidak adanya penyakit tertentu di dalam farm, (b) adanya jaminan  resiko bagi konsumen terhadap produk yang dihasilkan, (c) adanya jaminan keamanan dalam lingkupan hidup dan sustainability usaha, dan (d) jaminan terhadap tiadanya resiko penyakit zoonosis khususnya bagi karyawan.

Materi Penunjang:

http://kedokteranhewan.blogspot.com/2007/10/biosecurity.html

Biosecurity (a system aimed at protecting poultry flocks from all types of infectious agents), along with coordination and communication between various animals-producing areas. T h e group believed that if each segment of the poultry industry (commercial egg and poultry operations, small flock owners, feed and egg haulers, service crews, live poultry dealers, truckers, auction markets, and many others) recognized its potential role in the spread of poultry diseases, preventive measures could be readily taken.

Over the years, Govenment has developed various educational materials on biosecurity, including posters, pamphlets, and videotapes. Government also conducts educational meetings such as seminars for backyard and specialty flock owners and an annual meeting on biosecurity. Government agencies, poultry companies, and university Extension units have also developed numerous educational materials on poultry biosecurity.

However, efforts to disseminate these materials and explain their importance appear inadequate or unsustained. In addition, these guidelines have not reached nonpoultry personnel who regularly visit poultry operations due to the nature of their jobs (i.e., electric and gas meter readers). These people may also transmit disease-causing pathogens from farm to farm if biosecurity precautions are not taken. An even greater risk comes from live bird market dealers who pick up birds from backyard flocks or culls from some commercial flocks.

What is biosecurity?

The term “biosecurity” may not be a common household word but, for millions of poultry and livestock producers, it may spell the difference between health and disease. Preventing disease-causing germs or microbes from entering your premises is the key to flock health and the success of your business. It’s not as complicated as you think. Biosecurity, in simple terms, is informed common sense. Do not bring germs to poultry, and do not bring poultry to germs. Bear in mind that you are dealing with persistent, invisible killers that readily survive in dust particles, droppings and debris, waiting to hitch a free ride to a lush living on your poultry farm.

Effective disease prevention reduces emergency diseases like Avian Influenza and exotic Newcastle disease. These diseases cause epidemics on poultry farms, loss of export markets, public alarm, cancellation of poultry shows, and long, expensive quarantines, resulting in severe financial losses. Common diseases like fowl cholera, infectious laryngotracheitis, Mycoplasmosis, and paratyphoid infection can cause reduced growth and feed conversion, decreased egg production, reduced product quality, and lower customer satisfaction.

How do microbes travel?

Microbes travel from place to place via chicken crates, egg filler flats, trucks, equipment, and people (Figure 1). They can be found on people’s hands, in their hair, on clothing, and on shoes. They are found on the skin and in the digestive and respiratory o rgans of dogs, cats, rats, mice, and wild, free flying birds. Flies, beetles, and other insects are also notorious spreaders of disease-causing org a ni s m s . Many germs die in two or three days but, under certain conditions (such as cold damp surroundings), they survive much longer. Even with a short, one-day survival, germs can travel several hundred miles when clinging to drivers, trucks, chicken crates, or egg-filler flats.

Table 1. Biosecurity guidelines for commercial poultry farms.

  1. Maintain lockable gates or barriers and post “Restricted Entry,” “Authorized Personnel Only,” or “Do Not Enter- Biosecurity in Effect” signs at driveway entrances.
  2. Keep poultry houses locked; fasten from inside while inside.
  3. Resident flock manager should have clothing (including shoes, boots, hat, and gloves) when caring for flocks separate from clothing worn off the farm.
  4. Flock manager and other caretakers should not visit any other poultry flocks.
  5. Do not allow visitors in or near the poultry houses.
  6. Essential visitors such as poultry catchers, repairmen, and service personnel must put on protective outer clothing, including boots and headgear, prior to being allowed near the flocks. Tools and equipment carried into the poultry houses should be cleaned and disinfected before they enter and upon leaving.
  7. Keep a record (log) of visitors indicating their names, company or affiliation, address, telephone, and place last visited.
  8. After caring for the flock, change clothes completely and wash hands and arms before leaving premises.
  9. Monitor vehicles entering premises for poultry pickup or delivery, feed delivery, fuel delivery, etc., to determine if they have been scrubbed down and the undercarriage and tires spray-disinfected prior to entering. If vehicle does not appear to be properly sanitized, do not admit the vehicle to the property.
  10. Do not go to auctions or sales where chickens and other poultry species are being displayed or sold. These birds could carry AI, LT, MG, MS, and other infectious and economically devastating diseases.
  11. Avoid contact with wild water-fowl and backyard chicken flocks.
  12. All coops, crates, and other poultry containers or equipment must be cleaned and disinfected prior to use and following use.
  13. Sick or dying birds should be submitted to a state/university laboratory for diagnosis. Contact your flock supervisor.
  14. Dead birds must be properly disposed of by composting or incineration.
  15. When attending essential grower meetings or seminars:
    • After your last poultry house visit, shower and change your clothing and footwear before attending meeting.
    • Travel to the seminar in a vehicle that is not used on your farm.
    • After returning from the meeting, disinfect footwear and vehicle floor mats and change your clothing. Use different clothing, footwear, and vehicle to re-enter your poultry operation.

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