C. Sanitasi dan Higiene

Almost fifty per cent of the developing world’s population – 2.5 billion people – lack improved sanitation facilities, and over 884 million people still use unsafe drinking water sources. Inadequate access to safe water and sanitation services, coupled with poor hygiene practices, kills and sickens thousands of children every day, and leads to impoverishment and diminished opportunities for thousands more.

Poor sanitation, water and hygiene have many other serious repercussions. Children – and particularly girls – are denied their right to education because  their schools lack private and decent sanitation facilities. Women are forced to spend large parts of their day fetching water. Poor farmers and wage earners are less productive due to illness, health systems are overwhelmed and national economies suffer. Without WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene), sustainable development is impossible.

Penunjang:

http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/courses-jmgay/FDIUSanitation.htm

Perkembangan ilmu sanitasi kesadaran akan peranan sanitasi dewasa ini relatif sangat cepat sejalan dengan semakin tumbuhnya kesadaran akan perlindungan terhadap penyakit. Sanitasi yang semula hanya dilakukan di lingkungan rumah tangga, pada akhirnya menjadi suatu kebutuhan yang bahkan menerobos disiplin ilmu yang lain. Salah satu diantaranya adalah dikembangkannya higieonomika dan higiene hyphothesis.

Sanitasi didefinisikan sebagai usaha pencegahan penyakit dengan cara menghilangkan atau mengatur faktor-faktor lingkungan yang berkaitan dalam rantai perpindahan penyakit tersebut (Ehlers dan Steele, 1958). Penerapan dari prinsip-prinsip sanitasi adalah untuk memperbaiki, mempertahankan atau mengembalikan kesehatan yang baik pada manusia (Betty, 1988). Dalam industri pangan, sanitasi meliputi berbagai kegiatan secara aseptik dalam persiapan, pengolahan dan pengkemasan produk makanan; pembersihan dan sanitasi pabrik serta lingkungan pabrik dan kesehatan pekerja. Sedangkan dalam industri perunggasan. Prinsip-prinsip sanitasi dilakukan pada berbagai tahapan mulai dari usaha pembibitan ayam, usaha pembesaran ayam, Rumah Pemotongan Unggas dan atau Tempat pemrosesan Daging sampai pada penanganan pasca panen, pengolahan dan penyimpanan daging.

Kegiatan sanitasi yang berhubungan dengan produk makanan meliputi (a) pengawasan mutu bahan mentah, (b) perlengkapan dan suplai air, (c) usaha pencegahan dan kontaminasi penyakit, (d) pengolahan, (e) penggudangan dan (f) kemasan, memerlukan proses sanitasi yang baik agar kualitas produk yang dihasilkan benar-benar aman dan sehat dari pengaruh hazard yang mungkin timbul sehingga menyebabkan penyakit pada konsumen. Kontaminasi mikroorganisme dapat terjadi pada semua titik dalam proses produksi. Oleh karenanya sanitasi harus diterapkan pada semua proses produksi ternak dan penanganan pasca panen. Resiko terjadinya penyakit pada ternak dan juga manusia dipengaruhi oleh interaksi antara 3 komponen yaitu ternak, lingkungan dan mikroorganisme.

One of the important tasks of the committee was to establish the definitions of food safety terms to be used throughout this report. Definitions of key food safety terms from a variety of agencies and organizations were thoroughly reviewed and are listed in Table A.1. To assure uniformity and consistency, the committee decided to adopt most of the definitions published by the International Commission on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (ICMSF, 2002), which are widely accepted throughout the global food safety community. There are a few terms that were specifically defined by the committee, one that was modified from the ICMSF definition, one that was adopted from the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and one that was used in a presentation to the committee.


These definitions are explained below.

A microbiological criterion defines the acceptability of a product or a food lot, based on the absence or presence or number of microorganisms, including parasites, and/or the quantity of their toxins/metabolites, per unit of mass, volume, area, or lot (CAC, 1997). Microbiological criteria usually fall into three categories and include microbiological standards, guidelines, and specifications. Microbiological standards are used to determine the acceptability of a food with regard to a regulation or policy. These standards are established by regulatory authorities and define the microbiological content that foods must meet to be in compliance with a regulation or policy. Foods not meeting the standard are in violation of the regulation or policy and are subject to removal from the market (ICMSF, 2002).

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